Hawaiian Nationalism, Chicano Nationalism, Black Nationalism, Indian Tribes, and Reparations
Akaka Bill Sets a Precedent for the Balkanization of America (109th Congress, S.147 and H.R.309)
(c) Copyright 2003 - 2005 Kenneth R. Conklin, Ph.D. All rights reserved
NOTE: This article was written in 2003 when the Akaka bill had different bill numbers. For the 109th Congress, 2005-2006, its bill numbers are S.147 and H.R.309. Hopefully the numbers have been updated throughout this essay.
- 1 Summary
- 2 Introduction
- 3 A VIEW OF HISTORY SHARED BY HAWAIIAN AND CHICANO ACTIVISTS
- 4 MEChA, THE NATION OF AZTLAN; AND THE RECONQUISTA OF THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST
- 4.1 Front page articles on MEChA website
- 4.2 MEChA and Aztlan's agenda
- 4.3 Bumper Stickers
- 4.4 Excerpts from 2001 Phyllis Schlafly essay
- 4.5 Bustamante, MEChA and the media, by Michelle Malkin, August 20, 2003 Excerpts
- 4.6 Bustamante Ties to Student Movement Raises Questions of Racism (by Fox News) Excerpts
- 4.7 Bustamante: The Racist in the Race? FrontPageMagazine, August 11, 2003. Excerpts
- 4.8 "Multiculturalism, Immigration, and Aztlan" by Maria Hsia Chang
- 5 PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF AZTLAN EXPRESSES SOLIDARITY WITH THE "NATION OF HAWAI'I" AND ACKNOWLEDGES THE UNITED STATES AS THEIR COMMON ENEMY
- 6 PROFESSOR HAUNANI-KAY TRASK, HAWAIIAN NATIONALIST, CLEARLY EXPRESSES SIMILAR ANTI-WHITE AND ANTI-AMERICAN ATTITUDES
- 7 BLACK NATIONALISM, THE REPUBLIC OF NEW AFRICA, AND REPARATIONS FOR SLAVERY
- 8 THE SENATE OF THE STATE OF HAWAI'I IN 2001 PASSED A RESOLUTION QUESTIONING WHETHER THE STATEHOOD VOTE OF 1959 WAS LEGITIMATE, AND CALLING UPON THE UNITED NATIONS TO COME TO HAWAI'I AND PERHAPS SUPERVISE A PLEBISCITE OFFERING THE OPTION OF TOTAL INDEPENDENCE
- 9 HAWAI'I SENATORS AKAKA AND INOUYE -- WHY BOTH ARE MEMBERS OF THE SENATE SELECT COMMITTEE ON INDIAN AFFAIRS; AND WHY INOUYE IS AMERICA'S MOST POWERFUL ADVOCATE OF RACIAL BALKANIZATION
- 10 CONCLUSION
There are strong similarities between the Hawaiian sovereignty movement and the Chicano nationalist movement. The 2003 Gubernatorial recall campaign in California focused public attention for a few days in August on the radical agenda of an ethnic nationalist group to which Lieutenant Governor Cruz Bustamante belongs. This Chicano-power group is MEChA, or Nation of Aztlan. Its view of history and demands for nationhood are strikingly similar to the Hawaiian sovereignty movement.
A bill now being considered in Congress, S.147 and H.R.309 (the Hawaiian Government Reorganization bill), would give federal political recognition to an ethnic group in Hawai'i as though they are an Indian tribe. This bill is pork barrel politics, designed to protect 160 racially exclusionary government programs for "Native Hawaiians" which will otherwise be ruled unconstitutional by the courts. But the same misguided theory that would allow Congress to convert an ethnic group into a racial separatist government in Hawai'i could also be used to support racial separatism and eventual independence for "indigenous" people of Mexican ancestry in California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and perhaps other states. Anyone concerned about MEChA, Nation of Aztlan, or Chicano nationalism should also be concerned about Hawaiian nationalism, and vice versa. The success of one would help the other both politically and legally. There are also parallels to Black nationalism and demands for reparations for slavery.
What makes Hawaiian nationalism of special concern to the rest of America is that it may be the first nationalist movement to succeed in establishing a government, thanks to the support of Hawai'i's powerful senior Senator, Daniel Inouye. S.147/H.R.309, the Native Hawaiian Recognition bill, would give a political and legal victory to Hawaiian nationalism, setting a precedent for other ethnic nationalist movements. Our country is strong enough militarily to defeat any foreign enemy. Our most dangerous enemy comes from within -- the idea of race-based rights and ethnic nationalism. S.147/H.R.309 is the thin edge of a very large knife poised to dismember America. That is a very good reason why Senators and members of Congress from throughout America must oppose this disastrous legislation.
Congress gives genuine Indian tribes special sovereign governmental powers over their lands and people, in accord with the Indian Commerce clause of the Constitution. Indigenous tribes which have maintained a separate and distinct lifestyle and have governed themselves continuously from before Western contact through the present time should be entitled to keep their autonomy. But today there are some radical members of racial or ethnic groups who would like their groups to have similar powers. They want to pull away from our integrated society, and perhaps secede entirely. They want Congress to give them recognition as though they are an Indian tribe, including a race-based government, race-based control over land, and megabucks from the federal treasury as reparations for historical grievances. The result would be unprecedented racial balkanization and political instability, possibly leading to the breakup of the United States (similar to the breakup of the former Yugoslavia and the former Soviet Union).
Here are the topics covered on this webpage, in order of appearance. Readers are advised to read everything; otherwise, scroll down to the section that interests you.
AUTHOR'S NOTE: A SHORTER VERSION OF THIS ARTICLE (ABOUT HALF THE LENGTH OF WHAT FOLLOWS) WAS PUBLISHED IN THE ON-LINE NEWSPAPER HAWAII REPORTER ON SEPTEMBER 3, 2003. A COPY OF THAT CAN BE FOUND ON THIS WEBSITE AT: http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/AkakaHawnChicanoNatnlHawRept.html
A VIEW OF HISTORY SHARED BY HAWAIIAN AND CHICANO ACTIVISTS
The following three paragraphs may sound to people in the Southwestern U.S. like the viewpoint of MEChA or Nation of Aztlan; and they may sound to people of Hawai'i like the viewpoint of Hawaiian sovereignty activists. Actually these are the views of both groups, and are similar to the views of other ethnic nationalist movements in America.
The activists claim to be indigenous to a certain area because they have at least one ancestor who lived somewhere in that area (in a range of hundreds of miles) prior to Western contact. Although someone's percentage of native blood may be very small, he nevertheless claims to be an aboriginal, indigenous, native person of that area.
The history of that area following Western contact goes something like this: Natives suffer extreme population decline (some call it genocide) because of newly introduced Western diseases. Gradually white people of European and American ancestry arrive in increasing numbers, and "impose" their culture, religion, language, legal system, money economy, and private property ownership, "forcing" the native people to assimilate to this strange new way of life. The white people bring in other non-natives, from Asia and Africa, as laborers. Eventually white people end up owning most of the property and running most of the government. Other non-white immigrants also get well-established. Natives end up at the bottom of society. At some point the U.S. stages an armed invasion to support a total takeover by the white oligarchy. After a few years or a few decades the area is officially annexed by the United States and sooner or later becomes a state.
But in recent years a growing awareness of historical heritage produces special pride in people who have any degree of native ancestry. Some people of native ancestry choose to identify more closely with their native ancestors than with their other ancestors, even when their native blood quantum is very small. An activist's pride in his native ancestry is accompanied by anger at historical injustices committed by his own white, Asian, or African ancestors against his native ancestors. The newly self-proclaimed indigenous people demand the right to self-determination, nationhood, and reparations from the United States for the "crimes" committed against them more than a century ago.
Ethnic Hawaiian activists might think the above three paragraphs describe themselves. But no. Those paragraphs describe people who have at least one ancestor of Mexican-Indian blood. The area where they live is not the State of Hawai'i, but rather the States of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas; and perhaps parts of other nearby states. As anyone who has studied American history knows, the lands of those states were formerly part of Mexico, and were obtained as a result of military conquest in a war with Mexico, or through treaty or purchase. And before the Spanish conquest and creation of Mexico those lands belonged to the indigenous people who lived there (especially the Aztecs), and whose descendants still live there today. The immigrants who came and took over the land, and the newer immigrants who came since then, freely chose to come (except for African slaves dragged there by their owners), and freely chose their new nationality as Americans. But the surviving "natives" of today never chose to be invaded or engulfed by a foreign culture or nation. Some radicals among them say they owe no allegiance to the United States, and they assert "indigenous rights" under "international law" to self-governance and independence.
First, let's look at the view of history held by Chicano nationalists seeking to carve out a piece of America for their "Nation of Aztlan." Then we'll see how a very similar view of history is held by ethnic Hawaiian nationalists.
MEChA, THE NATION OF AZTLAN; AND THE RECONQUISTA OF THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST
The radical Chicano group MechA, also known as the Nation of Aztlan, came to public attention in late August, 2003 during the recall campaign for Governor of California. Lieutenant Governor Cruz Bustamante, the leading Democrat contender to replace Governor Gray Davis if Davis is recalled, was an active member of this radical group during his days as a college student. But what grabbed public attention in the recall election is that Bustamante repeatedly refused to disavow his continuing support for their radical agenda of racial separatism and, indeed, racial supremacy in a secessionist nation.
Front page articles on MEChA website
The acronym MEChA stands for Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan, or the Chicano Student Movement of Aztlan. The Nation of Aztlan maintains a longstanding, large website called La Voz de Aztlan. In addition to the anti-American political content and commitment to ethnic nationalist secession, there is clearly a strong anti-Jewish racism. Here are the titles of some of the articles prominently displayed on the front page of the website, at: http://www.aztlan.net/
(1) COINTELPRO: U.S. Domestic Covert Operations against La Raza; (2) VIVA PALESTINA LIBRE! Delegacion Especial en Mexico. (3) Sign Petition to Stop US Military Aid to Israel; (4) Sign Petition for International Investigation Committee on Ariel Sharon's Crimes against Humanity; (5) The "Kosher Nostra Scam" on the American Consumer; (6) The Petition to End Kosher Certification Labels; (7) New U.S. Flag!; (8) Fidel Castro Says US Should Return Aztlan Back to Mexico; (9) Did Schwarzenegger pay the Wiesenthal Center to "shut up" about his father's Nazi past? (10) Mel Gibson, Anne Emmerich, Jesus and the Jews; (11) The Manjewrian Candidate: The making of California Governor Gray Davis
MEChA and Aztlan's agenda
El Plan de Aztlan
In the spirit of a new people that is conscious not only of its proud historical heritage but also of the brutal "gringo" invasion of our territories, we, the Chicano inhabitants and civilizers of the northern land of Aztlan from whence came our forefathers, reclaiming the land of their birth and consecrating the determination of our people of the sun, declare that the call of our blood is our power, our responsibility, and our inevitable destiny.
We are free and sovereign to determine those tasks which are justly called for by our house, our land, the sweat of our brows, and by our hearts. Aztlan belongs to those who plant the seeds, water the fields, and gather the crops and not to the foreign Europeans. We do not recognize capricious frontiers on the bronze continent
Brotherhood unites us, and love for our brothers makes us a people whose time has come and who struggles against the foreigner "gabacho" who exploits our riches and destroys our culture. With our heart in our hands and our hands in the soil, we declare the independence of our mestizo nation. We are a bronze people with a bronze culture. Before the world, before all of North America, before all our brothers in the bronze continent, we are a nation, we are a union of free pueblos, we are Aztlan.
Por La Raza todo. Fuera de La Raza nada.
El Plan Espiritual de Aztlan sets the theme that the Chicanos (La Raza de Bronze) must use their nationalism as the key or common denominator for mass mobilization and organization. Once we are committed to the idea and philosophy of El Plan de Aztlan, we can only conclude that social, economic, cultural, and political independence is the only road to total liberation from oppression, exploitation, and racism. Our struggle then must be for the control of our barrios, campos, pueblos, lands, our economy, our culture, and our political life. El Plan commits all levels of Chicano society - the barrio, the campo, the ranchero, the writer, the teacher, the worker, the professional - to La Causa.
Nationalism as the key to organization transcends all religious, political, class, and economic factions or boundaries. Nationalism is the common denominator that all members of La Raza can agree upon.
[Additional sections of this material are labeled:] Organizational Goals: UNITY, ECONOMY, EDUCATION, INSTITUTIONS, SELF-DEFENSE, CULTURAL, POLITICAL LIBERATION, Action -- El Plan de Aztlan is the plan of liberation!
An Aztlan activist group has a radio program and website, and offers bumper stickers with the slogan "U.S. Out Of Aztlan." The rhetoric is similar to Hawaiian ethnic nationalist rhetoric demanding the the U.S. pull out of Hawai'i, and that the U.S. is guilty of violating treaties with Hawai'i. The website is: http://www.sextosolradio.org/
The following bumper sticker, available on that website, is downloaded from http://www.bellyofthebeast.org/aztlan.html
Clicking on that sticker on the sextosol website produces the following information:
The slogan conjures images from the 1960s, but the creators of a new campaign say they're aiming to launch a new discussion over land, democracy and America's honoring of treaties. Hosts of the Latino-issues radio show Sexto Sol, which airs on Houston's Pacifica affiliate KPFT, are sending out vinyl stickers around the country, bearing the phrase "U.S. Out of Aztlan." But Aztlan isn't some far-off Middle Eastern land; in the lore of the Chicano civil rights movement, Aztlan refers to the Southwestern United States, land taken over by the United States after the Mexican-American War of 1846. The idea is more than just distributing insurrectionary rhetoric, but to open up a debate over American policy, Latino civil rights and immigration. "Last year, the United States celebrated the 155th anniversary of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, but today the agreements forged to protect Mexicans' ancestral and land rights have been largely forgotten," explains Sexto Sol co-host Ernesto Aguilar. "Mexico lost two-fifths of its land and America took a huge section of the Southwest, changing geography and history forever." The U.S.-Mexico War, after which the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago was signed, brings up one of the more sordid episodes in American history. When Texas was part of Mexico, the United States made attempts to purchase the land. By 1827, President John Quincy Adams offered to buy Texas from Mexico for $1 million, an offer that Mexico rejected. Andrew Jackson tried again in 1829, offering $5 million, but Mexico still refused to sell the land. By the fall of 1835, a faction of settlers in Texas were at war with Mexico, claiming they constituted an independent country. The same settlers declared independence from Mexico on March 2, 1836, declaring a boundary at the Rio Grande. Although settlers had lost the Battle of the Alamo the previous year, with American backing, they scored a surprise victory over the Mexican army at the Battle of San Jacinto. Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was taken prisoner, and signed the Treaty of Velasco, granting Texas independence and recognizing the Rio Grande as the boundary between Texas and Mexico. As soon as he was released, however, Santa Anna, who was also President, repudiated the treaty. Later, the United States formally annexed Texas, and went to war with Mexico over the state. In the end, the United States seized more than 525,000 square miles of land that would become the states of New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado and part of Wyoming. America also took complete control of what is now Texas. "In the process, what people conceive of in terms of borders, immigration, justice and the rule of law and principle have been shaped by very fundamental shirking of international law as well as injustice," Aguilar adds. "For the ancestors of Mexicans to whom the Southwest belonged, we didn't cross the borders, the borders crossed us."
The weekly radio show airs on Pacifica, a 50-year-old radio network known to promote dissident viewpoints. Stickers are being sent out free to anyone who sends Sexto Sol a self-addressed stamped envelope, in care of KPFT, 419 Lovett Blvd., Houston, Texas, 77006. Sexto Sol's program website is at www.sextosolradio.org
MEDIA NOTES: Media outlets can get a high-resolution Encapsulated Postscript version of the sticker at www.somoskpft.org/usofoutaztlan.eps
Sexto Sol is broadcast on Pacifica Radio KPFT 90.1 FM in Houston and 89.5 in Galveston
Also on the sextosol website, clicking on "about" yields the following information (excerpted here):
About Sexto Sol
Sexto Sol is a one-hour weekly radio program on Chicano/Latino culture, music and politics, and features topics for everyone in Houston and beyond. Sexto Sol addresses cultural and political issues affecting the Chicano Mexicano and Latino community, and relates the impact of world problems on the lives of nuestra gente. Sexto Sol serves as a means to communicate and unite our voices, ideas, struggles and culture. Sexto Sol is a member of the Raza Press Association, whose objective is to advance the struggle for Raza Self-Determination by promoting and unifying the progressive Raza press/media. One of the most common questions is "what does sexto sol mean?" Mythology holds that there are eras, or suns, that indigenous/Latin people go through. The sixth sun, our current era, according to mythology, is our era of struggle, enlightenment and liberation from the oppression we have faced as a people.
What does "occupied AztlÃ¡n" mean?
According to legend, AztlÃ¡n is the ancestral homeland of the Aztecs which they left in journeying southward to found Tenochtitlan, the center of their new civilization, known as today's Mexico City. AztlÃ¡n refers to the American southwestern states of California, Arizona, Texas, New Mexico, portions of Nevada, Utah and Colorado, land seized by the United States in 1848. In 1969, at the Chicano National Liberation Youth Conference in Denver, Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales put forth a political document entitled El Plan de AztlÃ¡n (Spiritual Plan of AztlÃ¡n), which read, in part: In the spirit of a new people that is conscious not only of its proud historial heritage, but also of the brutal "gringo" invasion of our territories, we, the Chicano inhabitants and civilizers of the nothern land of AztlÃ¡n from whence came our forefathers ...declare that the call of our blood is...our inevitable destiny.... AztlÃ¡n belongs to those who plant the seeds, water the fields, and gather the crops, and not to the foreign Europeans. We do not recognize capricious frontiers on the bronze continent.... Brotherhood unites us, and love for our brothers makes us a people whose time has come .... With our heart in our hands and our hands in the soil, we declare the independence of our mestizo nation. We are a bronze people with a bronze culture. Before the world, before all of North America, before all our brothers in the bronze continent, we are a nation, we are a union of free pueblos, we are AztlÃ¡n. Many revolutionary nationalist organizations today insist that AztlÃ¡n must be reconquered (Reconquista) and reclaimed for Mexico. For more information on legal precendents against colonization and history, check out the Mandate of the Indigenous Peoples.
Excerpts from 2001 Phyllis Schlafly essay
In November of 2001 Phyllis Schlafly published an article about the Mexican government's official endorsement of the reconquista and the concept of Aztlan on her "Eagle Forum."
"In Chicago on July 27, 1997, then Mexican President Ernesto Zedilla told the National Council of LaRaza, "I have proudly affirmed that the Mexican nation extends beyond the territory enclosed by its borders." He announced a Mexican constitutional amendment that purports to allow Mexicans to retain their Mexican nationality even though they become U.S. citizens (which is contrary to the U.S. naturalization oath). When President Vicente Fox came to the United States this year, he reiterated this line, proclaiming that "the Mexican nation extends beyond the territory enclosed by its borders" and includes migrants living in the United States. He called for open borders and endorsed Mexico's new dual citizenship law. Some Mexicans use the term "reconquista," which is Spanish for reconquest, to describe their desire to see California, New Mexico, Arizona and Texas acquired by Mexico and named the new country of Aztlan. They are teaching their youth that the United States "stole" those areas from Mexico and that they should be "returned." ... Vicente Fox presented Mexico's Congress with a five-year development plan to eliminate the U.S.-Mexican border. He said he plans to serve "the 100 million Mexicans who now live in Mexico and the more than 18 million who live abroad," and to "strengthen our ability to protect and defend the rights of all Mexicans abroad." Juan Hernandez, appointed by Fox as special liaison to Mexicans abroad, lobbies to get U.S. driver's licenses issued to illegal aliens and defends the Mexican government's issuance of desert survival kits to those sneaking across the border. On ABC's Nightline on June 7, he boasted: "We are betting that the Mexican-American population in the United States ... will think Mexico first." ... the Mexican consul donates to the local public schools the same textbooks that are used in every elementary school in Mexico, grades 1 through 6. The books, written in Spanish and including all academic subjects, teach that America "stole" the southwest from Mexico and that Mexico is entitled to take it back. ... The question we should ask our Mexican immigrant friends is, are you assimilating or invading?
Bustamante, MEChA and the media, by Michelle Malkin, August 20, 2003 Excerpts
"MEChA has been dismissed by some as a harmless social club, but it operates an identity politics indoctrination machine on publicly subsidized college and high school campuses nationwide that would make David Duke and the KKK turn green with envy. MEChA members in the University of California system have rioted in Los Angeles, editorialized that federal immigration "pigs should be killed, every single one" in San Diego, and are suspected of breaking into a conservative student publication's offices and stealing its entire print run in Berkeley. MEChA's symbol is an eagle clutching a dynamite stick and machete-like weapon in its claws; its motto is " Por La Raza todo. Fuera de La Raza nada (For the Race, everything. For those outside the Race, nothing)." The MEChA Constitution calls on members to "promote Chicanismo within the community, politicizing our Raza (race) with an emphasis on indigenous consciousness to continue the struggle for the self-determination of the Chicano people for the purpose of liberating Aztlan." "Aztlan" is the group's term for the vast southwestern U.S. expanse, from parts of Washington and Oregon down to California and Arizona and over to Texas, which MEChA claims to be a mythical homeland and seeks to reconquer for Mexico ( reconquista )."
Bustamante Ties to Student Movement Raises Questions of Racism (by Fox News) Excerpts
"California Lt. Gov. Cruz Bustamante (search), the grandson of Mexican immigrants who counts improving race relations among his biggest pursuits, refused Thursday to renounce his past ties to a little-known Hispanic organization considered by critics to be as racist as the Ku Klux Klan. Instead, Bustamante, who is running to be governor of California, praised the Chicano Student Movement of Aztlan, or MEChA, and said he still supports it. ... MEChA has used violence in the past to make its case. At a July 4 celebration in 1996, members of the group, who call themselves Mechistas, were videotaped attacking black and white Americans protesting illegal immigration. In 1993, students at UCLA caused $500,000 worth of damage during protests to demand a Chicano studies department. MEChA has also been associated with anti-Semitic groups like Nation of Aztlan. MEChA's motto is "for the race, everything. For those outside the race, nothing." ... Bustamante has been questioned before about racism. In 2001, he had to apologize profusely to state African-American leaders after mistakenly referring to a black union using the N-word. Bustamante called it a slip of the tongue, but audience members attending the Black History celebration were stunned at the reference, for which he did not apologize until the end of his 10-minute speech."
Bustamante: The Racist in the Race? FrontPageMagazine, August 11, 2003. Excerpts
"I wasn't the most radical Mechista," says Bustamante nowadays. Perhaps not, but he was a member of MEChA and has refused all requests that he dissociate himself from its values and ideas. As its critics might argue, to say you were not "the most radical Mechista" is a bit like saying you were not "the most radical Nazi." Just to have been a Nazi, however "moderate," is radical, socialist and evil enough to warrant condemnation. Like Nazism, MEChA has acquired more than a tinge of racism. In their tactics to advance Latinos and "La Raza," many of its activists have directed racist attacks against not only white-skinned Anglos but also against blacks, Asian-Americans and Jews â€“ in fact, against every non-Latino group. The "A" in MEChA stands for "Aztlan," their word for the entire southwestern United States from Texas to California and from the Mexican border to the Canadian border, lost in war or sold by Mexico to the U.S. Mechistas aim to reclaim all this land for Mexico in a new reconquista, a "reconquest" like the re-taking of Spain from Moorish Muslims by Roman Catholics that was completed in 1492. In 1996 and 2000, then Vice President Al Gore worked closely with the Southwest Voter Registration Project to register Hispanic voters as Democrats. Gore appeared with project leaders who as they shook his hand were wearing the brown berets of Aztlan symbolic of the Mechista crusade to restore Mexican control to all once-Mexican land.
"Multiculturalism, Immigration, and Aztlan" by Maria Hsia Chang
A scholarly analysis of Hispanic-American ethnic nationalism and the concept of Aztlan was produced in 1999 by Maria Hsia Chang, Professor of Political Science, University of Nevada Reno. The paper, entitled "Multiculturalism, Immigration, and Aztlan" was presented at the Second Alliance for Stabilizing America's Population Action Conference, Breckenridge, CO, August 6, 1999. The paper was later published in The Social Contract, X:3 (Spring 2000), pp. 207-211. It has been widely circulated since then; for example, the complete text is available at: http://www.theamericanresistance.com/articles/art2000spring.html
The following paragraph is entirely composed of some quotes from Professor Chang's paper [footnotes have been suppressed in these quotes, but are available in the on-line essay]
"[A]ccording to its editor, Elizabeth Martinez, the purpose of Five Hundred Years of Chicano History, a book used in over 300 schools throughout the West, is to "celebrate our resistance to being colonized and absorbed by racist empire builders." The book calls the INS and the Border Patrol "the Gestapo for Mexicans." For Rodolfo Acuna, author of Occupied America: The Chicano's Struggle Toward Liberation, probably the most widely assigned text in U.S. Chicano Studies programs, the Anglo-American invasion of Mexico was "as vicious as that of Hitler's invasion of Poland and other Central European nations...." The book also includes a map showing "the Mexican republic" in 1822 reaching up into Kansas and Oklahoma, and including within it Utah, Nevada, and everything west and south of there. At a MEChA conference in 1996, Acuna referred to Anglos as Nazis: "Right now you are in the Nazi United States of America." The effect of books such as those is to radicalize young Chicanos. As an example, although Chicano undergraduates at Berkeley lacked any sort of strong ethnic identity before entering college, in Berkeley they became "born again" as Chicanos because of MEChA and Chicano Studies departments. Chicanos are not the only ethnic groups in the United States who resist assimilation and are geographically concentrated in certain areas and cities. The Cubans in Miami and Chinese in Monterey Park are other examples, but neither group is large enough to practice autonomism or separatism. Chicanos in the Southwest, however, are great in numbers and "are producing spokesmen for...autonomism, separatism, and even irredentism.""
Professor Chang observed that Chicano undergraduates entering the university at Berkeley usually lacked any sort of strong ethnic identity; but Berkeley radicalized them because of the presence of MEChA and the Chicano Studies departments. In the same way, the Center for Hawaiian Studies at the University of Hawai'i has been radicalizing ethnic Hawaiians. See: "University of Hawai'i and Hawaiian Sovereignty -- A Case Study in Political Correctness Run Amok" at: http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/uhacademicfreedom.html
Professor Chang observed that "Chicanos are not the only ethnic groups in the United States who resist assimilation and are geographically concentrated in certain areas and cities. ... Chicanos in the Southwest, however, are great in numbers and are producing spokesmen for...autonomism, separatism, and even irredentism." The same thing is true in Hawai'i. Ethnic Hawaiians comprise about 20% of the population of the State of Hawai'i. Some geographic areas are predominantly ethnic Hawaiian, such as the island of O'ahu communities of Waimanalo, Wai'anae, and Hau'ula; and of course the 59 "Hawaiian Homelands" artificially created under terms of the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1921 which requires someone to have at least 50% Hawaiian native blood in order to get a homestead lease.
Professor Chang cites extreme hate-filled anti-white and anti-American rhetoric which Chicano activists use to stir up anger. Readers of this wepage will find examples of such rhetoric used by Hawaiian activists in the section dealing with Professor Haunani-Kay Trask, below.
A large webpage documenting the Anti-Americanism of the Hawaiian sovereignty movement can be found at: "Hawai'i's Fifth Column: Anti-Americanism in the Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/antiamerican.html
PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF AZTLAN EXPRESSES SOLIDARITY WITH THE "NATION OF HAWAI'I" AND ACKNOWLEDGES THE UNITED STATES AS THEIR COMMON ENEMY
Email from Provisional Government of Aztlan to the Nation of Hawai'i (Bumpy Kanahele)
The following e-mail was sent by the Provisional Government of Aztlan to the Nation of Hawai'i (Bumpy Kanahele) on September 28, 2000. It was widely circulated among Hawaiian sovereignty activists, as evidence of international support and solidarity with their ethnic nationalist independence movement. It is copied here in its entirety.
Date: Thu, 28 Sep 2000
Subject: Provisional Government of Aztlan
Since 1848 when the Mexican government "signed" the "Treaty" of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the U.S. has been occupying the northern half of Mexico known as Aztlan. What makes this occupation as patently illegal as their current occupation of the Kingdom of Hawai'i, is the fact that the U.S. Army forces occupying Mexico City and other parts of Mexico had standing orders to overrun the rest of the country if the government refused to sign this "treaty". This is known in legal circles as BLACKMAIL-rendering the "agreement" entered into null and void! From California to Texas, millions of U.S. citizens are in fact residing on foreign soil. Millions of others, born and raised in this territory, think they are U.S. citizens, when in LEGAL reality, they are MEXICAN. Many are aware of this situation and, tired of U.S. racism and economic exploitation on both sides of the FALSE BORDER (FRONTERA FALSA), are struggling to end U.S. occupation of their land.
A provisional government has been set up to address these issues: 1. Ending YanKKKee occupation and 2. Shall Aztlan be independent, or re-unify with Mexico? Those who support independence argue that Mexico's current government is so dominated by the U.S. and its corporate interests, that it represents de facto TOTAL occupation of the ENTIRE COUNTRY by the U.S.-reunification will solve nothing. Those who support re-unification argue that while engaging in a process of transition toward re-unification, Aztlan will support the liberation of Mexico by the Zapatistas(EZLN), and other popular revolutionary movements. Once Mexico is liberated, the transition to re-unify Aztlan with the rest of Mexico will be completed.
With this background in mind, I hope the Kingdom of Hawai'i will support the Provisional Government of Aztlan (Revolutionary Council) in its efforts to end U.S. occupation, just as we would support the Kingdom of Hawai'i in its efforts to accomplish the same objective. We have a common enemy. We have a common struggle, for Aztlan and Mexico are also Indigenous nations (remember Mexico RE-GAINED its independence from Spain in 1821, after 300 years of colonial occupation by that country. Mexico as a nation was founded in 1325 by representatives of the Tenochca Mexica-"Aztecs"), which is why, as you will find, the representatives of our provisional government have names in the Indigenous Nahuatl language.
Here then, is the URL for the Revolutionary Council of the Provisional Government of Aztlan:
The e-mail address for Cuauhtli, Minister of Information is Cuauhtli@Aztlan.Org.
We need to support each others efforts for International recognition and hopefully, establish mutual agreements, fair trade and SELF-DETERMINATION for both Aztlan and the Kingdom of Hawi'i.
PROFESSOR HAUNANI-KAY TRASK, HAWAIIAN NATIONALIST, CLEARLY EXPRESSES SIMILAR ANTI-WHITE AND ANTI-AMERICAN ATTITUDES
Trask Speech excerpts
Available in its entirety at: http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/leasetofeetrask090202.html, which is part of a larger webpage of writings and speeches of Professor Trask at: http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/trask.html
Aloha, my people, aloha. I want to talk today about the causes, both historical and contemporary, for the situation that we, the native people of Hawai'i, now find ourselves in. If we go back in time to contact with the syphilitic Captain Cook, what we realize is that the first thing that was a gift of Western civilization was disease. The second thing that was a gift of Western civilization was violence -- they tried to take our chief hostage, and as a result of that we killed him. That was called Justice. Death to the conqueror is justice, that's what it is. In 1848 the missionaries -- the disease-laden racists -- that's a very good word. Racism. Racist. Race. Very very good words. These were racist people. They came here to colonize us because we didn't have the right gods.
Don't let anybody tell you not to be angry. We have every right to be angry. We have every reason to be angry. And we ARE angry. And the reason that we're angry -- the reason we are angry -- is because this is OUR country, and they took our government and imprisoned our queen -- right here she was imprisoned in her palace. And they banned our language. And then they forcibly made us a state of the racist, colonialist United States of colonial America. Do you have a right to be angry? Of course you do. Of course you do!
Foreigners came. They conquered. They took our lands. They imprisoned our queen. And THEY divided us by blood quantum. THEY did. Isn't it ironic that a HAOLE -- Freddy Rice -- Mr. missionary, whose illustrious ancestor overthrew Kalakaua and created the bayonet constitution that that racist man, who received so much of our land, now says that we are racists. IMPOSSIBLE! That is impossible! You have to have power to be a racist. Number one. Do we have power? No. They all have power. The power of white supremacy. The power of white courts. The power of a white country called the United States of white America.
Politics has to do with power. Who has it and who doesn't. Do WE have power? No! If we have power, what are we doing here? They took away the queen's land. They did. Why do we have to be subjugated to the state? To the federal government? The racist Bush "bomb every dark person" federal government.
Why are WE, as native people, subjugated in our own land? Why are we made to be afraid? Because we are colonized. We live in a colony. The United States of America. All that military theft of our lands, our homelands, our ceded lands, all of that, all of that was done by the United States of America.
When Kamehameha was getting ready to go to war, he didn't sit there and think, "Oh gee I wonder if we should make nice." When you gonna make war, you get your facts down and you make war. The opposition knows that. Aren't they making war against us? You bet they are. And you do not belong on the American side. You do not belong on the Hawai'i state side. You belong on the side of your people --lahui Hawai'i [racially defined Hawaiians] -- that's the side you belong on.
We need to think very, very clearly about who the enemy is. The enemy is the United States of America, and everybody who supports it. You have to know which side of history you're on, and who is there with you. They are not there with you, Hawaiians. They want to take every single thing away from you.
This is what is affecting us today is RACISM. And we have to tell it like it is. As black people say, it's not [inaudible], it's racism. That's what it is. You are not a racist because you fight racism. You're a warrior, like I am. You are a warrior.
BLACK NATIONALISM, THE REPUBLIC OF NEW AFRICA, AND REPARATIONS FOR SLAVERY
Racial separatists and ethnic nationalists among both Hawaiians and Chicanos have always looked for inspiration to radical leaders of the black power movement. Of course the situation of African Americans is different from Hawaiians and Chicanos. Africans were brought in chains across an ocean to America, and their descendants today demand reparations for slavery. Hawaiians and Chicanos remained in the lands of their indigenous ancestors and were invaded and overrun by foreigners -- they demand reparations not for slavery but for loss of lands and loss of political control. But viewed from the present situation of the United States of America, all three groups are minorities who claim historical grievances against America. Radicals in all three groups demand enormous amounts of money, land, and power as reparations. Some in each group demand political recognition as sovereign governments. Here are some excerpts from two webpages focusing on Black nationalism.
At the height of the Black Power Movement in the late 1960s, members of the Republic of New Africa (RNA) called for the creation of an independent black nation spanning the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina. ... Their manifesto demanded that the U.S. government cede the five proposed states to the Republic of New Africa and pay $400 billion in reparations to African Americans for the injustices of slavery and segregation. In 1968, attorney Milton Henry and his brother Richard, former acquaintances of Malcolm X who renamed themselves Gaidi Obadele and Imari Abubakari Obadele, respectively, convened a group of militant black nationalists in Detroit, Michigan, to discuss the creation of a black nation within the United States. Conference members established the Republic of New Africa and declared their allegiance to the provisional government. They elected Imari Obadele as provisional president. The Republic of New Africa quickly became a target of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), which conducted raids on their meetings. These confrontations were violent and led to the repeated imprisonment of RNA leaders for assault and sedition. Following his 1980 release from prison, Imari Obadele attended Temple University and earned a Ph.D. in political science. While teaching at various universities, he published books and articles upholding the RNA's principles of reparations, acquisition of land, and establishment of an autonomous black nation. Based in Washington, D.C. with a membership of almost 10,000, the Republic of New Africa continues to promote the formation of a black nation.
The issue of reparations has received increased attention in the last several months. Local and state legislative bodies have taken up the issue; articles have appeared in leading newspapers and magazines; it has been a topic of lively debate on the Internet and local and national television and radio programs; and Randall Robinson's TransAfrica conducted a nationally televised symposium on the subject. Also, The Boston Globe reports that Harvard's much publicized "dream team" of African American intellectuals is considering legal and legislative actions to secure reparations.
Bishop Henry M. Turner was the first African American leader to call for reparations. He did so near the end of the Reconstruction era. The Nation of Islam has, since its inception, called for reparations, and the Republic of New Africa (RNA), organized by Obadele and his Malcolm X Society associates in 1968, demanded payment of $400 billion in "slavery damages." However, the modern movement for reparations did not take organizational form until 1988, when Obadele and his associates formed the National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (NCOBRA).
NCOBRA initiates litigation, publishes a newsletter and sponsors national and regional conferences. Professor Obadele gave the closing argument in a mock trial at Bethune-Cookman College in 1998, where a bi-racial jury voted to award reparations. At its tenth annual convention held in St. Louis in June 1999, NCOBRA adopted the "Six Down-Payment Demands on the U.S. Government," which demanded that a billion dollars each be given to ten black colleges, that a billion dollars be placed in a black economic development fund, that $20,000 be awarded to each black family, that a billion dollars be given to black farmers, and that all "political prisoners" be released. For more information, visit the NCOBRA website.
The principal aim of the RNA since its formation has been the organization of a plebiscite among African Americans in order to determine whether they would wish to form an independent nation-state within the current boundaries of the United States. Professor Obadele has written extensively on the right of blacks under prevailing standards of international law to have been accorded after the Civil War the opportunity to choose independent nation-state status rather than forcible incorporation into the United States.
Movements reach critical points. In the next several years, reparations will be won and we will begin to use the proceeds in the best manner to repair ourselves as a people and once more provide black genius to the world.
The Reparations Campaign, for Black people in the United States, emerged more than one hundred years ago as the U.S. Federal Government was trying to survive the ravages of warfare among it's citizen. In the wake of the bitter hostilities from the Civil War a decision was made to release from bondage millions of then enslaved Africans.
As U.S. political, civil and business leaders grappled with the pressing question of "what to do with the Negroes?" the newly freed Africans cried out immediately for restitution - payback for centuries of stolen labor, cultural degradation and dehumanizations. Indeed, Africans held as slaves have been struggling for a restored sense of wholeness since being brought to this country as chattel.
Other organizations and individuals have carried the demand for reparations farther into the twentieth century. Many of them have become a part of today's Reparations Campaign which is being spearheaded by N'COBRA.
Excerpts of the NCOBRA platform for black slavery reparations: http://www.ncobra.com/ncobra_info.htm
What do we want? We want our just inheritance: the trillions of dollars due us for the labor of our ancestors who worked for hundreds of years without pay. We demand the resources required removing all badges and indicia of slavery.
Why do we want it? We must prepare African people and communities for the demands of the new millennium. Reparations are needed to repair the wrongs, injury, and damage done to us by the US federal and State overnments, their agents, and representatives. These have proved that their vision for African people in America is joblessness, more prisons (more killer kkkops), more black women and men in private prisons, AIDS and violence. The US Eurocentric educational system has failed to prepare African children for liberation, nation-building, and self-determination.
When do we want it? We want it NOW! We know that preparatory steps must be taken before we can receive reparations even when the US Government agrees to pay us everything we demand. But NOW is the time to prepare for reparations. We must study how reparations can be used for our liberation for seven generations to come, and not for a one time shopping spree. We must use this time to develop ways to keep the billions of dollars, which we now earn, in the black community.
How much is owed? Once we know how much damage has been done to us, and what is required to repair the damage, we will know how much is owed. We cannot allow anyone to offer, or accept on our behalf; some arbitrary figure based on some other peoples' reparations settlement. For example, the four year internment of Japanese in America, or the five year holocaust of Jewish people in Europe may require a different set of remedies than the 500 years holocaust of Africans in America. The nature and extent of the damage and the number of people impacted will dictate the type, duration, and amount of reparations owed. Some estimate eight trillion dollars.
How would reparations be paid? Payment may include all of the following: land, equipment, factories, licenses, banks, ships, airplanes, various forms of tax relief, education & training, to name a few. A good academic exercise would be to develop a plan for how reparations could be used collectively to enable the African community to become independent from racist institutions and economically self-sufficient for at least seven generations.
Who would pay reparations? The US Government would pay reparations in the same manner as they voted for and paid billions to Europe through the Marshall Plan after WWII, or billions to Israel every year since WWII, or to Russia, or Eastern Europe, or to prop up some puppet African Government.
Who would receive reparations? People identified as Negro, Colored, Black, African American, New Afrikan, Black American who are the descendants of persons enslaved in the United States. Of course, those who feel that they are not due reparations, or do not need reparations will not be forced to accept it. What about Africans enslaved in other countries? Black reparations is an international movement. The descendants of Africans in Canada, Barbados, Haiti, Jamaica, and Brazil, West Indies, Caribbean, etc., are due preparations, but from their particular European colonizer. Colonized African countries too are due reparations. We recognize that although we were colonized and enslaved by different European colonizers and slavers, we are one people with many family members dispersed to different Countries.
THE SENATE OF THE STATE OF HAWAI'I IN 2001 PASSED A RESOLUTION QUESTIONING WHETHER THE STATEHOOD VOTE OF 1959 WAS LEGITIMATE, AND CALLING UPON THE UNITED NATIONS TO COME TO HAWAI'I AND PERHAPS SUPERVISE A PLEBISCITE OFFERING THE OPTION OF TOTAL INDEPENDENCE
This resolution might be seen as just one of those crazy things which state legislatures sometimes do. However, a resolution reaffirming pride in statehood and calling upon the governor to hold a celebration on the official statehood day holiday failed to pass out of committee in both 2002 and 2003; and meanwhile the legislature has passed resolutions supporting the Native Hawaiian recognition bill. Thus it appears the legislature supports both racial separatism (the recognition bill in Congress) and ethnic nationalism (the independence resolution) but lacks the courage or desire to express pride in being the 50th state. Members of Congress should defeat S.147/H.R.309 if for no other reason than to discourage the separatist/nationalist mentality, which has clearly run amok in Hawai'i.
Independence resolution which passed the Hawai'i Senate in 2001
Report Title: Native Hawaiian Sovereignty; Urging Federal Action and Support
THE SENATE S.R. NO. 98
TWENTY-FIRST LEGISLATURE, 2001 STATE OF HAWAII
SENATE RESOLUTION requesting the united states government and the united nations to review the actions taken in 1959 relevant to hawaii's statehood.
WHEREAS, over the last three decades, the Hawaii society, and especially the Native Hawaiian population within that broader society, has had the opportunity to engage in a process of recovery and rediscovery - recovery of the arts, crafts, cultural expressions and language of Hawai`i past, and rediscovery of the historical events which have brought Hawai`i to its present political, social, and economic condition; and
WHEREAS, the process of recovery and rediscovery has brought about much mourning amongst the Native Hawaiian people, the descendants of Hawaiian nationals of the Kingdom of Hawai`i, and others who also share today the Hawaiian archipelago as their home; and
WHEREAS, in the aftermath of the process of recovery and rediscovery and of mourning, from many fronts within the Hawai`i society, people have engaged in dreaming of a just and secure Hawai`i society, addressing both possibilities of remaining within or stepping without the United States of America; and
WHEREAS, in 1991, the Hawai`i State Legislature, by Concurrent Resolution, encouraged the continued discussion and debate over the subject of Hawaii's future, both within or without the United States of America, forming the first of three legislatively construed entities, the Sovereignty Advisory Commission (SAC); and
WHEREAS, in 1993, the Hawai`i State Legislature, following the report of SAC, formed the Hawaiian Sovereignty Advisory Council (HSAC) which continued the investigation of Hawaii's history and conducted mass consultation with the native Hawaiian people on the future steps to be taken on the subject of Hawaiian sovereignty; and
WHEREAS, on November 23, 1993, the United States Congress adopted and the President of the United States signed Public Law 103-150 thereby confessing to a list of events violating the rights of self-determination to the Hawaiian Kingdom and apologized to the Native Hawaiian People for the complicity of the United States in such events which resulted in the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom; and
WHEREAS, in 1993, the Hawai`i State Legislature enacted Act 354, Session Laws of Hawai`i 1993, acknowledging that the actions of the United States were illegal and immoral, and pledged its continued support to the native Hawaiian community by appropriating funds for the development of programs and curriculum to educate the general public about Hawaiian sovereignty through a purchase of service contract with Hui Na'auao; and
WHEREAS, throughout these developments, it has become more and more apparent that the events which brought Hawai`i into union with the States of the United States were of questionable legality and morality; and
WHEREAS, during these three decades, it is now made clear that the standards of international law and the obligations of the United States under the Charter of the United Nations had not been fully complied with in that the process of self-determination leading up to a choice for the people's future form of governance were not met in Hawai`i at the time the 1959 vote on Statehood was taken; and
WHEREAS, in 1959, when the Statehood Vote was put to the people of Hawai`i, the choices given to the people did not include choices for independence from or free association with the United States of America, but only the option of integration with the United States, in the form of a State of the Union, or as a territory of the United States; and
WHEREAS, when the United States Congress acted upon the vote bringing Hawai`i into the Union of States, a serious question was raised as to whether or not that act was consistent with the fulfillment of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of the people who were governed under a system of non-self governing territories pursuant to General Assembly Resolution 66 of the United Nations; now, therefore,
BE IT RESOLVED by the Senate of the Twenty-First Legislature of the State of Hawaii, Regular Session of 2001, that the Senate calls upon the United States government and the United Nations, as parties to the Charter of the United Nations, to:
(1) Review the actions taken in 1959 relevant to Hawaii's Statehood within the Union of the United States of America, the fact that, in affording the people the opportunity for self-governance, no choices were given for independence or free association, but only for integration within the United States of America; and
(2) Consider the implications for the continuing right of self-determination for the Native Hawaiian people and for the people of Hawai`i, as both a matter of domestic law and international law;
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that certified copies of this Resolution be transmitted to the President of the United States, the Majority Leader of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of the United States Congress, the Secretary General of the United Nations, and the United Nations' Special Committee on the situation with regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.
HAWAI'I SENATORS AKAKA AND INOUYE -- WHY BOTH ARE MEMBERS OF THE SENATE SELECT COMMITTEE ON INDIAN AFFAIRS; AND WHY INOUYE IS AMERICA'S MOST POWERFUL ADVOCATE OF RACIAL BALKANIZATION
U.S. Senator Daniel Inouye is one of the most powerful members of the Senate. He has high seniority because of the many years he has served there. He has always been one of the top pork-barrel Senators, bringing billions of federal dollars home to Hawai'i. He is the top-ranking Democrat on the Defense Appropriations subcommittee, which makes him chairman whenever the Democrats are in control. That gives him enormous power to steer federal military expenditures to Hawai'i -- military spending is the second-largest factor, after tourism, in Hawai'i's economy. He is also the top-ranking Democrat on the Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs, which makes him chairman whenever the Democrats are in control. Hawai'i Senator Daniel Akaka is also a member of the Indian Affairs committee, where he has served throughout his Senate career.
Why would Senators from Hawai'i want to serve on the Indian Affairs Committee? Especially considering that there are no Indian tribes in Hawai'i, and neither of them has any Indian ancestry! Why would both Senators from this state choose to serve on the same committee, when they could spread Hawai'i's influence by serving on different committees? The only other state that has both of its senators on the Indian Affairs committee is North Dakota, where Indian tribes are very important. All the other members of the Indian Affairs committee come from states where tribes are numerous and powerful.
So, why have both of Hawai'i's senators spent their careers on this committee? The answer is pork barrel politics. Senators Inouye and Akaka have been successful in quietly inserting "Native Hawaiians" among the beneficiaries of legislation for Native Americans and Alaska Natives. They are like the cuckoo bird that lays its eggs in the nests of other birds who then hatch and feed the babies. They are like tapeworms inside the bowels of legislation intended to benefit genuine Indian tribes. Thus the senators bring megabucks in federal spending for Indians to Hawai'i. The money directly helps "Native Hawaiians" and indirectly helps the rest of Hawai'i's economy. Federal legislation to provide healthcare , education, or housing to Indian tribes has always been easier to pass than similar legislation to benefit everyone. Providing free healthcare or college scholarships to all Americans has never been considered an obligation of the federal government; but providing those benefits to Indian tribes is clearly a federal responsibility.
"Native Hawaiians" comprise 20% of Hawai'i's people, so programs that benefit them are a major factor in Hawai'i's economy and political power structure. Until 2000, nobody thought of challenging the inclusion of "Native Hawaiians" in Indian legislation. But then along came the Rice v. Cayetano decision by the Supreme Court. The decision only directly affected the right to vote for statewide office without racial restrictions, but in reaching its decision the Court ruled that "Native Hawaiians" are a racial group and not a political entity. And then it began to occur to government officials and civil rights lawyers that it is probably unconstitutional to give government benefits to the racial group "Native Hawaiians" exclusive of all other racial groups like Filipino-Americans or Chinese-Americans. And that's when there was a sudden urgency to convert this racial group into an Indian tribe even though they have never been regarded as such.
In retrospect, Hawai'i Senators Akaka and Inouye can be regarded like "sleeper agents" in spy stories. For many years they served in positions where they worked very quietly to add the term "Native Hawaiians" to Indian legislation in order to bring home the pork. But nobody could have imagined that the time would come when they would suddenly spring to life to create a phony Indian tribe out of thin air. It is as though their entire careers have been pointing in this direction all along.
As the years went by and Senator Inouye acquired more seniority, he became the highest ranking Democrat on the Indian Affairs committee. He acquired great power over the Indian tribes. While his main motivation had been merely to bring home the pork to Hawai'i, now he began receiving huge political campaign contributions from the Indian tribes. When tribes got the right to have tax-exempt gambling casinos, tribal casino money (tax free) and tribal political influence grew tremendously. Senator Inouye began sponsoring legislation to give federal recognition to bogus tribes who wanted to build casinos, like the Mashantucket Pequot "tribe" of Connecticut (see Jeff Benedict's book "Without Reservation" about the creation of this phony tribe and Senator Inouye's role). Inouye also got more aggressive about sponsoring legislation demanded by the tribes to greatly expand the sovereign powers of the tribes and give them more leverage against the states and local communities. Among the sovereign powers of the tribes is the right to give unlimited political campaign contributions to candidates -- because sovereignty means tribes are not governed by federal, state, or local laws limiting political contributions. The vast bulk of Senator Inouye's campaign contributions come from outside Hawai'i, mostly from Indian tribes and their affiliated contractors. Thus, Senator Inouye has become the most powerful person in America in the business of racial balkanization. He and his sidekick, Senator Akaka, talk very nicely about the rights of the "indigenous people" of Hawai'i to have "self-determination," and how these poor, downtrodden people so desperately need government assistance to preserve their beautiful culture and their future as "a people." But it's really pork barrel politics. See: http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/AkakaPorkBarrel.html
Any short-term gain from protecting existing racial programs against court challenges would be far outweighed by long-term damage to Hawai'i's local businesses and local communities. See: http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/tribeimpactbizandcommunity.html There would even be severe damage to the political and legal rights of the "Native Hawaiians" who are supposedly being helped by the legislation. See: http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/tribeimpactethnichawns.html
"United States: 562 Nations Under God." Elaine D. Willman Excerpts
The expansion of tribal power, and the resulting balkanization of America and loss of Constitutional rights, is very well described in a newly published article by Elaine D. Willman, entitled "United States: 562 Nations Under God." She describes the tribal areas of America as "moth-eaten holes" in "the fabric of traditional American government as established by our Constitution." Perhaps another way to describe what's happening is that the United States was formerly a single unified nation with the same Constitutional guarantees applying to everyone; but our country is now turning into something like a holding company or conglomerate that serves as merely a shell corporation for hundreds of subsidiary corporations each operating independently and under different charters. Professor Willman's article also shows the role of Hawai'i's two Senators, Akaka and Inouye, in sponsoring a bill that would enlarge the moth-holes in the fabric of America by removing federal, state, and local laws and rights from tribal lands, from the Indians living there, and from the non-Indians who live there or merely pass through (significant, because on many reservations 90% of the people living there are not Indians). Thus Hawai'i's two Senators press further in their campaign to balkanize America. Here are a few excerpts from Professor Willman's article:
Fabric left unattended can be devastated from tiny moth-eaten holes that grow. For a moment, please visualize in your minds, a map of the United States, all 50 states - a map that includes the fabric of traditional American government as established by our Constitution, that manifests in small townships, villages, cities, counties states and a federal center in Washington D.C. Now imagine holes in the fabric of that American government map - 562 sizable holes that are daily enlarging in more than 40 of our states across that map. There are over 100 such holes in California, and 29 such holes in Washington State alone - governments known as federally recognized Indian reservations predominantly require their enrolled tribal members, even though American citizens, to forego their Constitutional guarantees and Bill of Rights. The prevailing form of government within these holes is known as tribalism. It bears no relationship to a republic form of government or a democracy, as you and I understand democracy.
Now consider Senate Bill 578 entitled the "Tribal Governments Amendment to the Homeland Security Act of 2002." Four senators sponsor it: Daniel Inouye and Daniel Akaka, both from Hawaii, Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-CO) and Maria Cantwell (D-WA). SB 578 would remove the remnants of American government from Indian reservations, directly impacting more than 500,000 Indians, and as many other, non-Indian American citizens. The indirect impact affects millions of nearby Americans and even more millions of touring Americans.
For example, in Yakima County, Washington, SB 578 would remove the governance, jurisdiction and authority of three municipalities, county government and state government from 45% of Yakima County's total land base. Thus would traditional American government be removed from some 40,000 American citizens (the reservation is 90% non-Indian) who reside or work within or near the Yakama Indian reservation. Now apply the same or similar measuring stick to approximately 1,400 other counties in the United States that contain or surround Indian reservations (and many reservations spread out over several counties). Except for the Navajo Reservation, the great majority of Indian reservations are predominantly non-Indian in population. Congress, in its "Dancing With Wolves" mentality entirely ignores the reality of census data on Indian reservations. Congress now dances with new wolves - the gaming industry.
Senate Bill 578 does several other things. It grants tribes a sovereignty status equal to the 50 states - a direct violation of Article IV, Section 3 that disallows the creation of a state within a state. Worse, it allows these non-republic, unaccountable forms of government that do not abide by the Constitution, access to Homeland Security data, secret information, and additional federal funds.
I should mention here that over the recent years the Mohawk Reservation in New York boasted about being paid $40,000 a head for smuggling some terrorist aliens across the Canadian border to secretly merge into the United States. I should also mention that in early April of 2002, here on the Yakama reservation, the Yakama tribes played host for several days to 15 "civic journalists" from such countries as Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Algeria, Tunisia, etc.
I hope that you will help all of us across the country talk openly, freely and incessantly about spreading "holes" of tribalism in American government, called "Federal Indian Policy." I encourage you to keep up all individual and collective effort to preserve our United States as One Nation Under God - forever indivisible.
Hawai'i Senators Out Of Control
People from outside Hawai'i should understand that Senators Inouye and Akaka are just doing their jobs. They are grabbing all the money they can get from the federal treasury and bringing it home to Hawai'i. They are doing whatever it takes to become more powerful. They also see themselves as representing Indian tribes throughout America, who express gratitude by sending them campaign contributions. Their success is the reason why Hawai'i's people of all ethnic groups keep re-electing them. Pork barrel politics is the reason why the entire political establishment in Hawai'i, both Democrat and Republican, support the Native Hawaiian Recognition bill.
That's why those patriotic Americans in Hawai'i who are able to see the "big picture" must humbly ask people from other states to rescue us from our own Senators and Congressmen. In your own best interest, please stop sending megabucks to Hawai'i for racially exclusionary programs. Either send us money to help all needy people, or else keep your money for yourselves. And in the interest of protecting America against racial balkanization and dismemberment, please defeat S.147/H.R.309, even though our Senators and Representatives demand that you pass it and claim that our people want it. We are like drug abusers hooked on federal dollars, willing to prostitute ourselves and ruin our health to get more. Please take away the drugs and restrain us from hurting ourselves further, even if we cry in the pain of withdrawal and scream angrily at your persistence in helping us.
The Native Hawaiian Recognition bill, S.147/H.R.309, is the thin edge of a knife poised to dismember America. It would set a precedent for racial balkanization. It must be defeated. Hawaiian nationalism, Chicano nationalism, Black nationalism, and reparations for alleged historical injustices threaten the political stability of America.
Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, in his concurring opinion in Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena, (1995) made the following statement:
"Individuals who have been wronged by unlawful racial discrimination should be made whole; but under our Constitution there can be no such thing as either a creditor or a debtor race. That concept is alien to the Constitution's focus upon the individual, see Amdt. 14, 1 ("[N]or shall any State . . . deny to any person" the equal protection of the laws), and its rejection of dispositions based on race, see Amdt. 15, 1 (prohibiting abridgment of the right to vote "on account of race") or based on blood, see Art. III, 3 ("[N]o Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood"); Art. I, 9 ("No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States"). To pursue the concept of racial entitlement -- even for the most admirable and benign of purposes -- is to reinforce and preserve for future mischief the way of thinking that produced race slavery, race privilege and race hatred. In the eyes of government, we are just one race here. It is American."
Hawai'i's people have become addicted to federal dollars coming through race-based programs. Our politicians are doing their jobs by trying to pass legislation to protect those programs and keep the money flowing. But the spiritual and political health of our multiracial society, and the unity and stability of our beloved United States, will be severely damaged if the Native Hawaiian Recognition bill passes. People from outside Hawai'i should please do all in their power to stop our wayward politicians from putting short-term financial greed above long-term morality and patriotism. Please defeat S.147/H.R.309.
Two webpages created in May, 2004 are of special relevance.
SOME NATIONS AROUND THE WORLD HAVE RACIAL SUPREMACY WRITTEN INTO THEIR LAWS AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES, IN WAYS THAT ARE SIMILAR TO WHAT HAWAIIAN SOVEREIGNTY ACTIVISTS ARE SEEKING. The following webpage explores those silimarities: http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/racialsupremacyworldwide.html
The history of Fiji has many similarities to the history of Hawai'i; and recent ethnic strife in Fiji raises important questions for Hawai'i's future.
The Akaka bill, and proposals for Hawaiian independence, threaten to take Hawai'i down a path leading to the kind of social and political system that has plagued Fiji for many years, devastating Fiji's economy and resulting in the violent overthrow of the government on several occasions in the past 20 years.
Fiji and Hawai'i are both tropical island archipelagos in the Pacific, separated from their neighbors by long distances across the ocean. In both Fiji and Hawai'i, non-native immigrants and their descendants (some with 8 generations of residence) have come to feel entitled to equal rights with the natives. But in both Fiji and Hawai'i, racial equality has been called into doubt in recent years, as some of the citizens with native ancestry assert with increasing stridency that they have a right to racial supremacy in political power and control of the land.
Indo-Fijians are Asian citizens of Fiji whose ancestors were from India. They desperately want to have the rights that Asians have in Hawai'i (Asians whose ancestors came from China, Japan, and the Phillipines rather than India). But the Native Fijians have always held racial supremacy by law, and in recent years have used their control of the military to overthrow democratically elected governments that threatened to give full equality to Asians and establish race-neutral laws.
The following webpage examines the history of Fiji and its recent ethnic strife, paying special attention to similarities to Hawai'i regarding voting rights, property rights, and racial supremacy written into law. http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/fiji.html